Relevant Publications on Wild Ginseng
Turner, J. B. and J. B. McGraw. 2015. Can putative indicator species predict habitat quality for American ginseng?.Ecological Indicators 57:110-117.
Chandler, J. L. and J. B. McGraw. 2015. Variable effects of timber harvest on the survival, growth, and reproduction of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.).Forest Ecology and Management 344:1-9.
Hruska, A. M., Souther, S., and J. B. McGraw. 2014. Songbird Dispersal of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius).Ecoscience 21(1):46-55.
McGraw, J. B., A. E. Lubbers, M. Van der Voort, E. H. Mooney, M. A. Furedi, S. Souther, J. B. Turner, and J. Chandler. 2013. Ecology and conservation of ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in a changing world. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: The Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology. DOI 10.1111/nyas. 12032.
Wagner, A. and J. B. McGraw. 2013. Sunfleck effects on physiology, growth, and local demography of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.).Forest Ecology and Management 291:220-227.
Souther, S., M. J. Lechowicz, and J. B. McGraw. 2012. Experimental test for adaptive differentiation of ginseng populations reveals complex response to temperature.Annals of Botany 110(4):829-837.
Souther, S. and J. B. McGraw. 2011. Evidence of local adaptation in the demographic response of American ginseng to interannual temperature variation. Conservation Biology 25(5):922-931.
Souther, S. and J. B. McGraw. 2011. Vulnerability of wild American ginseng to an extreme early spring temperature fluctuation. Population Ecology 53:119–129.
McGraw, J. B., S. Souther, and A. E. Lubbers. 2010.Rates of harvest and compliance with regulations in natural populations of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.). Natural Areas Journal 30:202-210.
Wixted, K. and J. B. McGraw. 2010. Competitive and allelopathic effects of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) on American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius).Plant Ecology 208:347–357.
Mooney, E. H. and J. B. McGraw. 2009. Relationship between age, size and reproduction in populations of American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius (Araliaceae), across a range of harvest pressures. Ecoscience 16(1):84-94.
Wixted, K. and J. B. McGraw. 2009. A Panax-centric view of invasive species. Biological Invasions 11(4): 883-893.
Mooney, E. H. and J. B. McGraw. 2007. Effects of self-pollination and outcrossing with cultivated plants in small natural populations of American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius (Araliaceae). American Journal of Botany 94:1677-1687.
Mooney, E. H. and J. B. McGraw. 2007.Alteration of selection regime resulting from harvest of American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius. Conservation Genetics 8:57-67.
Van der Voort, M. E. and J. B. McGraw. 2006. Effects of harvester behavior on population growth rate affects sustainability of ginseng trade. Biological Conservation 130:505-516.
McGraw, J. B., M. A. Furedi, K. Maiers, C. Carroll, G. Kauffman, A. Lubbers, J. Wolf, R. Anderson, R. Anderson, B. Wilcox, D. Drees, M. E. Van der Voort, M. Albrecht, A. Nault, H. MacCulloch, and A. Gibbs. 2005. Berry ripening and harvest season in wild American ginseng. Northeastern Naturalist 12(2): 141-152.
McGraw, J. B. and M. A. Furedi. 2005. Deer browsing and population viability of a forest understory plant. Science 307: 920-922.
Furedi, M. A. and J. B. McGraw. 2004. White-tailed deer: Dispersers or predators of American ginseng seeds? American Midland Naturalist 152:268-276.
McGraw, J. B., S. M. Sanders, and M. E. Van der Voort. 2003. Distribution and Abundance of Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae) and Panax quinquefolius L. (Araliaceae) in the Central Appalachian Region. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Club 130(2):62-69.
Van der Voort, M. E., B. Bailey, D. E. Samuel, and J. B. McGraw. 2003. Recovery of populations of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) following harvest. American Midland Naturalist 149:282-292.
McGraw, J. B. 2001. Evidence for decline in stature of American ginseng plants from herbarium specimens. Biological Conservation 98:25-32.
Hackney, E. and J. B. McGraw. 2001. Experimental demonstration of an Allee effect in American ginseng. Conservation Biology 15(1):129-136.
Other Panax-centric Publications
Burkhart, E. P. 2013. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) floristic associations in Pennsylvania: guidance for identifying calcium-rich forest farming sites. Agroforestry systems 87(5): 1157-1172.
Chamberlain, J. L., Prisley, S., and M. McGuffin. 2013. Understanding the relationships between American ginseng harvest and hardwood forests inventory and timber harvest to improve co-management of the forests of the eastern United States. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 32:605-624.
Schlag, E. M. and , M. S. McIntosh. 2013. The relationship between genetic and chemotypic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) Phytochemistry 93(2013): 96-104.
Schlag, E. M. and , M. S. McIntosh. 2012. RAPD-based assessment of genetic relationships among and within American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) populations and their implications for a future conservation strategy. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 59(7): 1553-1568.
Burkhart, E. P., Jacobson, M. G., and J. Finley. 2012. A case study of stakeholder perspective and experience with wild American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) conservation efforts in Pennsylvania, USA: limitations to a CITES driven, top-down regulatory approach. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(14): 3657-3679.
Obae, S. G. and T. P. West. 2011. Effects of anthropogenic activities on genetic diversity and population structure of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) growing in West Virginia. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry 3(9):270-281.
Burkhart, E. P. and M. G. Jacobson. 2009. Transitioning from wild collection to forest cultivation of indigenous medicinal forest plants in eastern North America is constrained by lack of profitability. Agroforestry systems 76(2): 437-453.
Jochum, G.M., Mudge, K. W., and R. B. Thomas. 2007. Elevated temperatures increase leaf senescence and root secondary metabolite concentrations in the understory herb Panax quinquefolius (Araliaceae). Journal of Botany 94(5): 819-826.
Kauffman, G. 2006. Conservation assessment for American ginseng Panax quinquefolius L. USDA, Forest Service, Eastern Region. Asheville, North Carolina.
Cruse-Sanders, J. M., Hamrick, J. L., and J. A. Ahumada. 2005. Consequences of harvesting for genetic diversity in American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.): a simulation study. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 493-504.
Cruse-Sanders, J. M. and J. L.Hamrick. 2004. Genetic diversity in harvested and protected populations of wild American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L. (Araliaceae). American Journal of Botany 91(4): 540-548.
Cruse-Sanders, J. M. and J. L. Hamrick 2004. Spatial and genetic structure within populations of wild American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L., Araliaceae). Journal of Heredity 95(4): 309.
Grubbs, H. J. and M. A.Case. 2004. Allozyme variation in American ginseng (Panax quinuefolius L.): Variation, breeding system, and implications for current conservation practice. Conservation Genetics 5: 13-23.
Proctor, J. T. A., Dorais, M., Bleiholder, H., Willis, A., Hack, H., and V. Meier. 2003. Phenological growth stages of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). Ann. Appl. Biol. 143: 311-317.
Schluter, C. and Z. K. Punja. 2002. Genetic diversity among natural and cultivated field populations and seed lots of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) in Canada. International Journal of Plant Sciences 163(3): 427-439.
Robbins, C. S. 2000. Comparative analysis of management regimes and medicinal plant trade monitoring mechanisms for American ginseng and goldenseal. Conservation Biology (15)4: 1422-1434.
McGonigle, T. P., Hovius, J. P., and R. L. Peterson. 1999. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in cultivated field plot: plant age affects the development of a colonization lag phase. Canadian Journal of Botany 77(7): 1028-1034.
Nantel, P., Gagnon, D., and A. Nault. 1996. Population viability analysis of American ginseng and wild leek harvested in stochastic environments. Conservation Biology 10(2): 608-621.
Anderson, R. C., Fralish, J. S., Armstrong, J. E., and P. K. Benjamin. 1993. The ecology and biology of Panax quinquefolium L. (Araliaceae) in Illinois. American Midland Naturalist 129(2): 357-372.
Charron, D. and D. Gagnon. 1991. The demographic of northern populations of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). Journal of Ecology 79: 431-445.
Carlson, A. 1986. Ginseng: America’s botanical drug connection to the orient. Economic Botany 40: 233–249.
Schlessman, Mark A. 1985. Floral biology of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 112(2): 129-133.
Lewis, W. H. and V.E. Zenger.1983. Breeding systems and fecundity in the American ginseng, Panax quinquefolium (Araliaceae). American Journal of Botany 70(3): 466-468.
Carpenter, S. G. and G. Cottam. 1982. Growth and reproduction of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in Wisconsin, USA. Canadian Journal of Botany 60: 2692-2696.
Fountain, M.S. 1982. Site factors associated with natural populations of ginseng in Arkansas. Castanea 47: 261–265.
Lewis, W. H. and V. E. Zenger. 1982. Population Dynamics of the American Ginseng Panax quinquefolium (Araliaceae). American Journal of Botany 69(9): 1483-1490.